Materials used


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At Marles, we pay special attention to the materials used in construction, as we strive to achieve the maximum quality living environment of users of our buildings and at the same time the minimum environmental damage. To this end, we only use materials of natural origin, among which building construction and insulation materials represent the largest share.

 

Building construction materials:

 

Wood 

 

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In Marles houses, wood is the main construction material for the production of walls and roof beams as well as the main material used in the production of windows, doors and linings.

Of all materials, wood is the most ecologically acceptable option, as it is produced by the sun, whereby carbon dioxide that is present in the air is attached and wood volume is created. Taking this into account, we slow climate change by using wood and prevent emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere, which otherwise occur during wood degradation if wood is not processed and used in the period of its growth.

Due to our awareness of the necessity of domestic wood processing and the use of the annual increment of our forests, Marles buildings predominantly comprise of domestic wood, as it is still the most environment-friendly material because it does not require lengthy transport. An additional benefit to this is also that we create higher regional value and support domestic forest owners and forest-related businesses as well as other wood-processing establishments. We only import certain glued wooden products that we purchase from renowned European suppliers and do not manufacture ourselves due to technological reason.

Without any embarrassment, we are happy to once more emphasise the most important characteristics of wood:

  • Wood is healthy
  • Wood is natural, antistatic, elastic and steam-permeable
  • Wood does not emit harmful substances into the environment and does not cause allergies
  • Wood balances air humidity
  • Wood is not radioactive
  • Wood smells nice
  • Wood is warm
  • Wood is environment-friendly
  • Wood is the only renewable construction material with an exceptionally clean life cycle
  • Wood is created in the clean process of photosynthesis and assimilation, having a beneficial effect on the environment
  • Wood treatment and processing requires little energy
  • Wood represents an accumulation of CO2 and is CO2-neutral
  • Trees and wooden products have stored CO2 for decades and centuries.

From a technological standpoint, we can also ascertain that wood represents the best option for construction material because:

  • It allows the highest level of pre-production with fast assembly
  • The wood-related dry construction allows users to move into the new building immediately.
  • It is the construction material with the best thermal-insulation and heat-preservation ratio, thus decreasing heating costs
  • It can be used quickly
  • It allows for simple installation
  • It is easily processed and designed
  • It dries fast
  • It has low density and weight
  • It is the natural regulator of indoor atmosphere
  • It breathes and contributes to ventilation as well as air filtering and cleansing
  • It stabilises humidity
  • It absorbs sound
  • It is durable

 

Gypsum fibre boards

We use gypsum fibre boards as wall linings in Marles construction systems. Wall and ceiling linings play an important role in the closing of construction and wall-evening while at the same time providing construction support and contributing to favourable living conditions in the buildings.

 

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Gypsum fibre boards are entirely made of natural materials, in particular of gypsum and cellulose fibres obtained in the procedure of mechanical crumbling of selected types of waste paper. The board has three layers: the top layer provides a solid and smooth surface that can be easily finished as it serves as a great basis for coating, wall paper and ceramic lining. The middle layer decreases the weight of the board with the help of additives, whereas the bottom layer in combination with the top layer ensures mechanical hardness.
Gypsum fibre boards are non-flammable and are ranked in the highest safety category.

Even when thin, gypsum already acts as a fire-prevention agent, thus assuming an important role in fire control and the limitation of the fire to the place of its origin. Gypsum is also an exclusively natural material that is environment-friendly, has no smell, does not emit hazardous substances, is not toxic and balances room climate. Since it is very porous, it can temporarily absorb excess moisture in the room and then emit it back when the air becomes drier.
Gypsum board constructions enable significantly better soundproofing than massive concrete or brick constructions.
Ceilings in Marles buildings are processed with gypsum carton boards. Their core is made of gypsum, thus providing the necessary hardness of the product. The core is coated with carton on both sides, which ensures the bending and tensile strength of the boards.
The essential qualities of gypsum fibre boards are:

  • They are fireproof and do not burn, as they are ranked in the A2 flammability category in accordance with EN 13501-1
  • They are resistant to moisture (e.g. we place a board into water; after two hours, it absorbs 30 percent of moisture and emits moisture after drying, keeping its original qualities with regard to its hardness)
  • They serve as a good foundation for hanging shelves and hanging furniture elements weighing up to 50 kg
  • They serve as good sound and heat insulation
  • They have the same pH level as human skin, i.e. 5.5
  • As they absorb and emit room moisture, they act as a moisture regulator.

 


Insulation materials:


Cellulose

Cellulose insulation is the type of insulation that is having the highest increase in use and is environment and people friendly. It is mainly used for wall insulation but also for the insulation of roofs and wooden ceilings. It is made out of old newspapers with the addition of pine salt, so we do not use new raw materials in its production. Both newspapers and the small amount of salt are harmless for the environment and living creatures, which makes working with cellulose insulation much more pleasant than working with ordinary thermal insulation, as cellulose insulation does not cause itching or allergies. At the same time, this is the only insulation material produced with the help of recycling, so no new raw materials of natural origin are required for it.

Demonstration of cellulose insulation that ensures construction without thermal bridges.

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One of the essential qualities of cellulose is also that it has an exceptionally good lagging phase, used to measure the time period in which time losses occur in a given space. Lagging phase in the case of cellulose is 11 hours, while it only lasts up to 6 hours in the case of, for example, stone wool, which means that it takes 11 hours for heat to pass through cellulose insulation and only 6 hours in case of stone wool insulation, which makes the room temperature in the case of cellulose insulation significantly more stable than in the case of stone wool insulation. This means that a building with cellulose insulation can cool down in the winter and heat up in the summer significantly more slowly than a building with stone wool insulation.

We can further ascertain the following about cellulose:

  • Less energy is consumed for its production than for the production of other insulation materials
  • Its processing, assembly and removal do not represent harm to the environment
  • It ensures quality installation without thermal bridges
  • It is fireproof, which means that it does not catch on fire when in contact with fire. When exposed to fire, the surface of cellulose turns to crystal (crust) that prevents the passing of oxygen into insulation as in the wooden part of the construction. It is ranked in the B2 fire category.
  • It is capable of absorbing and emitting water steam all over its surface and thickness.


Stone wool

The most commonly used insulation material in Marles houses is stone wool. We use it for the insulation of exterior and interior walls, floors and roofs and also for the façade insulation in diffusionally open systems.
In order to ensure optimum effects of this insulation, at Marles we use stone wool of the DP 5 quality category for the insulation of external walls, which means that we use high-quality stone wool of exceptional density of 50 kg/m³. Fibre density determines the mechanical properties and consequently the purpose of stone wool installation, whereby it also affects the thermal conductivity of the material as well as its resistance to fire and sound insulation. In order to thermally protect parts of a building that are mechanically more exposed, such as the façade, stone wool of greater density needs to be used, which is why at Marles we use DP 5 stone wool of 50kg/m³ density.

 

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The typical intertwined structure of mineral fibres accounts for the excellent insulation capacity of stone wool.
Stone wool is excellent thermal insulation that has many other great qualities: it is water-repellent, steam-permeable (it breathes), resistant to microorganisms, odourless, chemically neutral, dimensionally stable, age-resistant and represents no danger to health.
Above all, stone wool gets high marks for its fire resistance and can as such be installed in buildings requiring the highest level of fire safety. It is produced from volcanic rocks (basalt and diabase) that set its melting-point above 1000°C and is ranked in the highest possible category of non-flammability, i.e. A1, as stone wool does not burn. However, there are also other arguments supporting the use of stone wool, in particular its strong insulation as well as other mechanical and physical properties, relatively simple installation and wide accessibility. Stone wool is made of short fibres that mainly consist of basalt and diabase rock. It is these fibres that make stone wool harder and possible to shape into compact boards and leaves.
Stone wool is produced in many forms, dimensions and densities, which makes it suitable for the insulation of all parts of new construction. In case of exterior walls’ insulation, it is used in the form of boards and leaves. The production procedure, especially with regard to façade boards, is adapted to the demands for increasingly thicker thermal insulation, which is why they possess greater tensile strength.


Graphite expanded polystyrene – Neopor®


Neopor® is a new and highly efficient thermal insulation material produced on the basis of expanded polystyrene - styrofoam. The base material is combined with small parts of graphite that reflect heat radiation, causing a significant decrease of heat transfer in the material. As such, Neopor® surpasses the thermal insulation properties of styrofoam by 20 percent, whereby the same insulation effect can be achieved with a Neopor® board that is thinner by a fifth.

 

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Due to its exceptional properties as thermal insulation and small thermal conductivity, it is exceptionally useful for façade insulation, as it provides both exceptional thermal insulation and proportionate rational space utilisation, since its thickness can be lower than other materials with respect to achieving similar thermal insulation effects, which means that the use of Neopor contributes to a smaller loss of living space.

Otherwise, Neopor has the same properties as styrofoam. Improvements and new research: “At BASF company, we strive to improve the properties of both Neopor and styrofoam even further, however we cannot expect any large break-through in construction-operative practice in this respect any time soon. We will certainly continue to improve their insulation and mechanical properties,” said Dr. Fischer. “In the long-term, we also work in the field of nanotechnologies such as carbon nanotubes, however this is merely the basic research that we conduct on our own and in cooperation with universities and can only expect results after the next five years.”


Thermal insulation boards made of wooden fibre


These are used in Marles EKO systems and comprise of clean, natural wooden fibres. They are made of exclusively fresh wood obtained in the thinning of pine woods and of added residue collected when the wood is cut. When this takes place, strict requirements of permanent forest management are observed, as confirmed by the FSC® (Forest Stewardship Council) independent organisation certificates. No conjunctive substances containing formaldehyde or PMDI substances are used in the production of wooden fibre insulation boards. Processing itself requires very little energy, and no harmful emissions occur during production or use. Strict requirements and regular check-ups ensure the highest level of quality as certified on the EU level by the natureplus® quality mark.

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When you are deciding to implement insulation with the use of thermal insulation boards made of wooden fibres, you are not only opting for environment-friendly construction but also for exceptional wellness and living quality of the building. Wooden fibre insulation also ensures fire safety. Although wood is flammable, it also guarantees the highest level of fire safety, which is also true of insulation materials made of processed wood. It is the wooden fibre insulation that prevents fast burning in case of a fire, as its surface turns to charcoal, thus preventing the fire from spreading. When combined with appropriate construction such as those used in Marles systems, thermal insulation made from wooden fibre materials ensures fire protection up to REI 90. This means that it would take 90 minutes for the fire to break through the construction. Another benefit of wooden fibre insulation is that it does not emit poisonous fumes during fire, which is an important element when it comes to rescuing people.


Wooden fibre insulation façade boards


We use wooden fibre insulation façade boards in EKO systems and certain NATURA systems. These boards are already protected with armed coating during production.

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Wooden fibre insulation boards are water-repellent, highly diffusionally open and highly compact. Due to the higher density of the material, the boards are significantly less heat-permeable, which is why they possess excellent insulation properties with respect to both summer and winter. When assembled with appropriate construction, the boards provide the construction with fire protection of up to F90.